Title: Development and Application of Vaccines in Global Health
Keywords: Health economics
Health Policy (incl. advocacy)
Disease prevention & control
Communicable diseases (in general)
Country: Spain
Institution: Spain - Barcelona Institute for Global Health - University of Barcelona
Course coordinator: Denise Naniche
Date start: 2018-05-28
Date end: 2018-06-06
About duration and dates: 2 weeks, from 9:00 to 11:00 and 11:30 to 13:30. This course includes pre-readings, to be completed ahead of the course start date.
Classification: advanced optional
Mode of delivery: Face to face
Course location: Faculty of Medicine
University of Barcelona
C/ Casanova, 143
08036 Barcelona
SPAIN
ECTS credit points: 3 ECTS credits
SIT: 75 hours
Hours of tutored projects: 20 h
Hours of face-to-face class time: 26 h
Hours of independent study: approximately 29 h
Total hours of students investment time (SIT): 75 h
Language: English
Description:

By the end of the course, students will be able to:

• Illustrate how vaccines work to provide individual and population immunity at an advanced level.

• Interpret the steps in the development of a safe, immunogenic and effective vaccine.

• Evaluate the challenges and obstacles of implementing immunization programs and strategies to improve their effectiveness.

• Critically discuss the factors that influence global vaccination policy, for existing vaccines as well as future vaccines.
Assessment Procedures:
The final grade will be the result from:
1. A two-hour multiple-choice exam (60% of final grade)

2. An individual tutored project resulting in a written paper of approx. 2.000 words (30% of final grade): a cross-cutting, advanced-level paper on a vaccine to be selected from a list given to students.

Each student will select a vaccine and develop a short case study illustrating its development and implementation from immunology and clinical development through licensure, evaluation of safety and effectiveness, financing, and implementation (including relevant challenges) in high, middle and low income settings. Issues to be addressed include any challenges from the perspective of policy and community acceptance of the vaccine studied.

3. Active participation in class (10%)

Student participation in class will be assessed as follows:
• A grade of 5 or less corresponds to minimum, disruptive, or no participation;
• A grade of 8 corresponds to responding constructively to questions;
• A grade of 10 corresponds to asking perceptive questions and active constructive and educational interaction with colleagues and instructor.

Students who do not receive a passing grade on parts 1 or 2 of the assessment may resubmit their work within one month. There is no re-sit for class participation.
Content:

The course is divided into 13 two-hour sessions:

Session 1: Introduction, history and current state of the art of vaccines
We will start the course by travelling back a few centuries to the early stages of “vaccinology”. The session will then focus on the history of the vaccines that have shaped public health through the 20th century. The session will also allow students to become familiar with scientific contributions of pioneers in the field of immunization. The session will then move into discussion of vaccines currently available and gaps and challenges in meeting global health needs of the 21st century.

Session 2 How do vaccines work? Harnessing the innate and adaptive immune responses
This session will introduce concepts of innate and adaptive immunity necessary for understanding how the immune system mounts an immune response and provides protection against pathogens. Since many vaccines are delivered at a very early age, we will also cover the development of fetal and infant immune systems and their response to vaccines. Students will be introduced to concepts of passive and active immunity as well as key differences in the immune response according to types of antigens present in pathogens and/or vaccines.

Session 3: Long term immune protection and correlates of immunity
The concept of immunological memory both at the individual level and at the population level will be covered. Students will study the types of immunogens and immune responses which give rise to long term protective immunity. In class discussion will focus on the successes and challenges in inducing long term immunity through vaccination. The second hour of the class will introduce the concept of correlates of immunity or how vaccinologists define and measure protective immunity. Examples of traditional biological markers used as correlates of immunity as well as newer approaches will be used for class discussion.

Session 4: Technical aspects of vaccine development: the preclinical phase and examples of malaria
This session will focus on the process of antigen discovery and selection of vaccine candidates. Students will learn the advantages and disadvantages of different immunogen delivery strategies including vectors, DNA, adjuvants and proteins. The extensive process of preclinical vaccine development will be detailed including the steps involved in in vitro and animal model testing of vaccine candidates prior to human clinical trials. Examples of preclinical vaccine development for existing and potential vaccines will be used for class discussion.

Session 5: Steps in the development of a vaccine: from clinical trials to licensure This session will focus on the different phases of vaccine development prior to licensure. Students will learn the regulatory processes involved in licensing and commercializing a vaccine as well as mechanisms for ensuring quality of the final product. Examples of the steps involved in clinical development, licensing, certification and production of existing vaccines will be used for in class discussion.

Session 6: Post-licensure evaluation of vaccine safety and effectiveness

This session will delve into the issues of how adverse vaccine events are monitored and their impact on vaccine policy. The discussion will cover aspects of post licensure surveillance for low frequency adverse events as well as for vaccine safety in vulnerable populations. The second hour will focus on post licensure evaluation of effectiveness of a vaccine.

Session 7: Implementation and challenges of vaccine introduction
This session will focus on the steps in introduction of a new vaccine. The session will cover the challenges in integrating a vaccine in national immunization programmes. Factors such as the availability of site-specific data on disease burden as well as health system characteristics and policy issues and will be considered. The session will introduce the various international bodies involved in promoting equity of access to vaccines as well as accelerating their uptake.

Session 8: International policies and financing of vaccines
The first hour of the session will introduce the concept of Global Health Public Goods (GHPG) which identifies a ‘good’ or service as a global benefit which would not be produced or disseminated if left to market forces. This session will investigate the challenges related to the concept that no-one should be excluded from accessing the good. Vaccines are considered the paradigm of GHPG.

The second hour will help the student to understand the role, interests, and power games of the institutions instrumental in managing vaccines as a global public health good. Historically, the World Health Organisation has been the key player. However, in the last 2 decades, other key stakeholders have emerged, such as the GAVI Alliance, the Product Development Partnerships and the Gates Foundation. This session will give an overview of the complex scenario generated by the proliferation of new actors with overlapping vaccine agendas.

Session 9: Vaccines in the community: acceptability, safety concerns and media responsibility
This session will offer the student a logical framework to understand the controversial topics surrounding vaccine risk communication. Uncertainty about vaccine risks and benefits has spurred the need for vaccine risk communication. Often poorly understood adverse events are at the heart of a controversy where existing communication appears inadequate.

The second hour of the session will consider the ways in which concerns over vaccine safety have emerged and have been disseminated through popular media, legislative hearings, and Internet-based activism. As a case study, we will review the controversy over the alleged connection between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

Session 10: From development to implementation: the meningitis and HPV stories
This session will introduce the principal challenges and barriers to the development and implementation of two vaccines crucial to global health: human papilloma virus and meningitis vaccines. These case studies will draw on information learned in the course.

Session 11: Challenges in vaccine development: the case of HIV The case of HIV vaccine research and development will be discussed to illustrate many of the scientific as well as political challenges currently shaping the development of vaccines for major global diseases. As well as providing a broad outline of the history and challenges of the global effort to develop a preventive HIV vaccine, the session will provide an overview of the current state of affairs in the path towards an AIDS vaccine. We will focus on the challenges related to the development of global public goods in health, including global coordination, the challenges of securing the engagement of the pharmaceutical industry both in developed and developing countries, the need to involve people from most affected communities, the regulatory hurdles, and the fundamental need to ensure that national authorities, funders, and policy makers ensure that AIDS vaccine development be a critical public health priority.

Session 12: Future Challenges in Vaccine Development and Application This session will tie together the information learned during the course. We will discuss the challenges facing the development of new vaccines in the 21st century.

Session 13: Final examination
Methods:
Lectures will be combined with participative activities designed to assist students in assimilating information. Activities will include structured questions and exercises during the lectures to be resolved in pairs or groups.

Students will have mandatory pre-readings and reading material to prepare for each class.

Independent study hours are to be divided between the previously mentioned readings (approx. 21) and independent study in preparation for the exam (approx. 8).

The tutored project involves research and writing of a short paper in consultation with course faculty (approx. 20 hours).
Prerequisites:
Students should have an advanced level of English. TOEFL test score 213 computer-based or 550 paper-based or 79-80 internet-based or IELTS band 6.0; or equivalent.
Attendance:
30 maximum students; 10 maximum tropEd students
Selection:
Students will be selected for this course based on a CV and letter of motivation.
Fees:
480 € plus university taxes
Scholarships:
There are no scholarships available for this course at the present time.
tropEd accreditation:
Accredited in June 2014. This accreditation is valid until June 2019.
Email Address: nuria.casamitjana@isglobal.org
Date Of Record Creation: 2014-06-23 05:58:09 (W3C-DTF)
Date Of Record Release: 2014-06-23 11:14:03 (W3C-DTF)
Date Record Checked: 2017-03-25 (W3C-DTF)
Date Last Modified: 2017-11-10 06:12:39 (W3C-DTF)

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